White trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) and red trillium (Trillium erectum) are three-leaved and three-petaled spring ephemerals found flowering in forests.
These species make for great examples for the importance of enabling whole healthy forest systems. Both species rely on ants, attracted by the fatty elaiosome, for seed dispersal. Red trillium lack nectar and are pollinated instead by flies which are attracted by the scent they emit of rotting flesh. White trillium rely on insects from the hymenoptera family, including bees and wasps, to be pollinated.
Deer commonly graze on trillium, decimating populations in some areas. Eaten (or picked) trillium may not survive the winter as they were unable to collect and store enough nutrients.
There are five trillium species native to Ontario, in addition to these two are painted trillium (Trillium undulatum), nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum) and drooping trillium (Trillium flexipes).